Module 2 Glossary


Facts and statistics collected together for reference or analysis.


The science of dating tree rings and studying their structure to interpret information about environmental and historical events and processes.


The action of taking something out, especially using effort or force.


To have a direct effect or consequence on someone or something.


When something is used in or developed for use in industry.


A distinct group of productive or profit-making enterprises.


(of a substance or a plant) - Having healing properties.


A foundational teaching in Indigenous cultures, reciprocity is defined as "The practice of exchanging things with others for mutual benefit." Giving an offering, such as tobacco, has spiritual significance in that it brings healing, gives thanks, and acknowledging the interrelatedness of all life forms. Reciprocity in practice maintains balance in the world.


Tobacco is one of the four sacred plants or medicines in many Indigenous cultures in Canada (note: tobacco is not used ceremonially in Inuit culture). When taking something from one of our relations, tobacco is offered as a sign of respect, honour, and gratitude.

Traditional Knowledge

Knowledge or information held by Indigenous Peoples, rooted deeply in many generations of experience in place (i.e. forest management, medicines and herbology, and climate patterns and animal migration).

Traditional Stories

Stories told from an Indigenous perspective that have been told for generations, many of which are Sacred Stories. Embedded in stories are social and moral lessons, emphasizing the importance of place and an ethical relationship with land.